Understanding Diversity And How It Affects Teaching And Learning – Part 2

Diversity Preparation

Teachers felt their formal pre-service training did little to prepare them for teaching a diverse student population. Typically, discussion about diversity was the extent of their training. Teachers felt the best pre-service preparation was student teaching in schools with racially and culturally diverse student populations. In the absence of formal training, they drew upon personal life experiences. Some teachers had traveled extensively; some had lived and taught overseas. Older teachers either had previous job experience working with children of similar backgrounds or felt their accumulated life experiences prepared them for understanding and relating to all kinds of students. Similarly, teachers growing up in urban areas among different races and cultures felt this background contributed to their understanding of and preparation for working with diverse student populations.

Most teachers said they learned about teaching diverse student populations on the job. Some familiarized themselves with the backgrounds of their students by doing research on specific cultures or reading about teaching in diverse settings. Once they felt they had an understanding of their students’ backgrounds, interests, needs, and aptitudes, they then tried to figure out how to differentiate the curriculum to meet the needs of individual students. They relied mainly on trial and error, and received little structured assistance to achieve this goal.

Diversity Support

According to the survey findings, about a third (32 percent) of the new teachers did not think their induction programs had any impact when it came to teaching a diverse student population; more than half (55 percent) felt the program had no impact on teaching English language learners.

During the interviews, the teachers said they had few professional development opportunities and limited support for teaching diverse learners. Diversity workshops were the most common form of professional development. In Seattle, diversity workshops are a standard component of the induction process for new teachers. While teachers generally held a positive view of the workshops, most felt they did not offer much in the way of actual classroom practice. Some teachers said their mentors helped them translate what they learned in the workshops into classroom practice. Mentors, peers, and administrators sometimes shared personal knowledge of individual students and their backgrounds, and new teachers found this to be useful.

Teachers felt that addressing diversity should be a goal of the entire school, not something left up to individual teachers. The extent to which a focus on diversity was part of the school culture either supported or impaired teacher efforts to address diversity in the classroom. Teachers pointed to aspects of school culture-low expectations of students of color and of those from poor families-that reinforce the cycle of poverty by asking less of certain students. School policies that labeled, separated, and tracked students with special needs, or those having learning problems, were seen as running counter to the efforts of individual teachers to promote effective teaching in their classrooms.

Although teaching special education students was challenging, teachers also found it to be a valuable learning experience. Teachers that had experience in special education felt they were able to draw upon that experience to teach academically diverse learners in general education classes.

Academic Diversity Support

Teachers struggled to meet the needs of diverse learners. While most felt they made progress as the year progressed, they also voiced frustration at the lack of instructional supports available to them. One teacher commented that half her class was bilingual and required an instructional assistant, but the assistant was frequently pulled out of the classroom to chaperone field trips and do other things. Another teacher felt she was not given adequate time or materials to teach effectively; she wanted fewer students, more classroom support, and less paperwork.

For the most part, teachers were left on their own to address academic diversity. Using trial and error, they introduced techniques they hoped would be effective and then evaluated how well the techniques worked with individual students. Observing and/or working with other teachers was another strategy new teachers employed. Several teachers found that the best way to address student differences was to find out as much about the students as possible and use this information as the basis for instruction.

For the most part, teachers had to come up with their own strategies for developing, implementing, and assessing what instructional strategies were effective with different types of learners. They felt hands-on instructional approaches worked with an array of learning styles.

Teaching Diverse Students

– Get to know each student individually. A good relationship is key to student and teacher success, and is based on open communication, trust, and respect.

– Learn about the racial and cultural backgrounds of your students, and get to know their parents.

– Learn about yourself and your own background. Ask yourself how your own background may affect your teaching style and your relationship with students.

– Create an environment where students can have safe dialogues on diversity, including race, culture, class, and sexual orientation.

– Help foster a school environment where staff members can have open discussions on race, culture, class, and other aspects of diversity.

– Identify and use tools to facilitate discussion around diversity, including facilitation protocols, ground rules for discussion, and contracts. Promote the use of these tools consistently throughout the school community.

– Master a variety of instructional strategies to reach students with different interests and strengths.

It’s Your Own Damn Fault You Are Paying So Much for Your Education

OK, maybe it’s not all your fault. Colleges themselves have something to do with the high cost, but it’s definitely because of your choices. Are you one of those individuals who complain about the high cost of your college education? Are you a graduate that gets depressed every time you have to make a ridiculously high student loan payment? If so, could you have done things differently and still received an excellent higher education?

According to the College Board, the average total published charges for full-time undergraduate students by type for 2013-2014 are as follows: Public Four-Year-In-State $18,391; Public Four-Year-Out-of-State $31,707; Private Nonprofit Four-Year $40,917. According to another study released by the Institute for College Access and Success (TICAS), the average debt incurred for student loans had climbed to $29,400 for the class of 2012. The 2013 figure is up by almost 10 percent compared to the group estimate the year before of $26,600. This shows an increase of an average of six percent each year from 2008 to 2012. When students and parents are looking for someone to blame for the high cost of their college education, they should look first to themselves and reflect on what they could have done differently. Here are some things to consider.

1. You could have studied harder.

As colleges compete to attract the brightest students to their school, they are prepared to offer the best deals possible including a full ride. Many colleges will offer additional grants and scholarships to high school graduates with high GPA, SAT, ACT scores; these are called Merit-Base Scholarships.

2. You could have gotten more involved.

Most college athletes are attending school on an athletics scholarship, however if you are not athletically gifted there are many other extracurricular activities you could have gotten evolved in. Some colleges and universities offer special grants and scholarships to students with particular talents. Music, journalism, drama and volunteering are a few categories for which these awards are made. In addition to schools providing scholarships to students with special interests, community and government organizations do as well.

3. You could have fought for more free aid.

Just completing the FAFSA is not enough; nor is it the only step in applying for financial aid. One hundred and fifty billion in financial aid is awarded to college students each year and over one million scholarships. There are scholarships based on athletic ability, academic merit, disability, race, nationality, religious affiliation, location, financial need and more. With a little research and patience, you could have found a long list of scholarships for which you are eligible even within your own school and community.

4. You could have chosen a school and major that offered you the best financial aid incentives.

How did you choose the college you applied for? The one with the best reputation, prestige, because that where your friends and family attended or maybe because you like their football tea? Maybe you attended where your boyfriend/girlfriend is going. However, a more responsible way would have been to select the school that offered you the best financial aid package.

When it comes to choosing a major, there can be many factors to think about. Studies have shown that most people don’t work in the field that their degree is in; it would have been financially smart to have chosen a major with the best financial aid incentive. Scholarships and grants vary by major, so with a little research you could have found a college and career field that was in need of people to fill them and offer several financial incentives to those who pursue a major within those fields.

5. You could have stayed in-state and off-campus.

A state college or university charges lower fees to state residents. Since public institutions are subsidized by state revenues, their tuition costs are lower than private schools’ costs. Here are the facts: A student living at home can save as much as $6,000 per year. Some students choose to attend a community college for one or two years, and then transfer to a four-year school. Tuition costs are substantially lower at community colleges than at four-year institutions.

6. You could have served in the U.S. Military.

The military offers many educational benefits that service members can take advantage of during or after service. Service members have access to benefits that range from financial aid and college funds to programs that convert military training into college credits. Here are some of those programs: Tuition Assistance, Post-9/11 GI Bill, College Fund Programs, Loan Repayment Programs, Service Members Opportunity Colleges (SOC), Community College of the Air Force (CCAF), Testing Programs plus others.

7. You could have asked your employer and/or parent’s employer for help.

Many employers offer Employer Tuition Assistance Programs to their employees and their families. Your employer may offer you up to $5,250 in employer education assistance benefits for undergraduate or graduate courses tax-free each year, per section 127 of the Internal Revenue Code. Another smart strategy would have been to get a job working for a college because many colleges offer tuition-free education to their employees.

8. You could have been strategic with your FAFSA to maximize your awards.

Studies have shown that one out of every seven FAFSA forms are completed incorrectly causing students to leave money on the table. In addition, many students never question their financial aid awards. Here are a few things you could have done wrong: you waited too long to complete the FAFSA or worse you did not fill it out at all, you kept assets in the student name, you overstated assets and income, you didn’t update the financial aid office when circumstances changed.

9. You could have saved on those expensive books.

You could have rented or bought used textbooks, sold your old book and reinvested the money for the next set. You could have borrowed, traded or teamed up with classmates to share the books or the cost. Doing so would have saved you thousands yearly.

10. You could have kept your grades up.

Almost all college funding are tied into your grades, each time you withdrew or failed a class it may have cost you to retake plus kept you in school longer which also cost you. If you did not meet your school Satisfactory Academic Progress (SAP) policy you would have lost or been at risk of losing your Federal Student Aid plus any other scholarships, military benefits and even employer assistance benefits.

Five Myth Busters of Changing Careers – Breaking Free to Reach Your Dreams

Aside from the statistics about the sheer number of careers across our lifetimes in 2009, there are a multitude of new perspectives on career planning, and career options. Was it an option to be a network engineer in a small office when you were a youngster? How about a nanotechnology researcher? Had you ever heard of international micro-loans? These are a few illustrations of newer trends in occupations and career path options.

Even if you are not changing careers this month or this year, you will still need to adapt to changing job demands and responsibilities. Moreover, you likely know someone who will be helped by this informative and freeing approach. Let’s break down the threats of the Changing Career Myths together. Read, consider strategies and options for your future, and share this timely information with your friends and family.

1. Career Bondage: You have to pick one career and stick with it. I did not realize anyone still believed this until I started polling high school seniors and college students. Sure enough, these young adults are convinced that their career choice is an irreversible decision. What pressure they experience in Career Bondage. When people look at the statistics and realize they will likely have several careers across their lifetime, it is a liberating experience. Suddenly they are free to step into the first opportunity. Phew! I have seen this excruciatingly long awaited step happen to 17 year olds and 55 year olds. They have similar issues despite being at very different life stages of course. The freedom to step into your future is always a good thing.

2. Closed Doors: Many careers are closed doors for me because I don’t have the correct academic degree. You know I have to use the example of Thomas Edison here, correct? He did not have a college degree and look at the influence he had on our world! It is innovation, dedication and inspiration which make a significant difference in many situations. Today, USA culture expects not only a high school diploma, but also a college degree for professional careers. However, once you have tagged that base, you have a multitude of options available to you. Most careers have entry level positions; consider that as you gain more experience and work up further in the organization and industry it may become even better paid and more exciting.

3. FULL TILT, or not at all: If you are going to switch careers you have to go into it full tilt, or not at all. Indeed, a much more successful approach is to try out your new career as a part-time position while you maintain your current career. If you really enjoy it and find it profitable, determine the best strategy for additional training and career opportunities. Another strategy is that if you are thinking of starting your own business, use the same strategy and research the details, plan your ramp-up to test the waters while you continue your full-time work. This approach often works for consulting services, mail-order, web-based fulfillments, and other home based businesses which can fulfill the needs for products or services during nontraditional work hours. Just be sure your full-time work does not suffer at the feet of your new career exploration. The references and relationships you have now will allows follow you and it is much more advantageous if they are always positive.

4. The Lone Ranger Rides Again: Nobody can help you with your career; you have to go it alone. From the country of the ostensibly self-made person, this myth seems to have become a Golden Rule. Truth be told, it is a Golden Failure when followed.The most successful people realize that they cannot know or do everything themselves and instead surround themselves with sharp, supportive advisers, coaches, and assistants. Use recommendations from colleagues, friends or research people who can assist you. Whichever avenue, be sure to run, not walk, as you begin creating a crackerjack support team. Critical members for this network include a financial adviser, career coach/adviser, proofreader (for cover letters and correspondence), and a lawyer (to review employment contracts, agreements, etc).

5. It’s a Matter of Luck. Successful careers are a matter of luck, you have to wait for the right door to open. Upon closer examination,it seems that many people who espouse this myth are not very successful. Successful people have shed too much sweat in their efforts and know better. Early in my 2nd career, I thought I was experiencing a lot of luck; however, when I said this to my supervisor, he said, “You create your luck, Kathy. I watch you do it.” I am often reminded of this comment because I find it natural to scan the environment for trends, look for opportunities and seek ways to move ahead. Moreover, I take initiative: I love what I do; therefore, I keep wanting to learn more about it! To the outsider it might look like I am working really hard to create luck. I think it is much simpler. The key to creating successful career opportunities may be initiative.

Whatever your current situation, consider how you can destroy the myths which are holding you back. Reevaluate them, gather new information and slay them one, by one. Where are there opportunities to move ahead? What would you like to be doing for work and recreation in 5, 7 or 10 years? What do you need to do to reach those dreams? Gather your support team and ride on into the world of career change and freedom!

Tips To Help You Choose The Best Assignment Help

Assignment help is something that can provide assistance to the students in the best ways for sure. Students these days have a very busy schedule with the projects, exams, assignments, and so much more. With such added pressure, they aren’t really able to focus on every single aspect of education.

As a result, the students will not score good marks in their exams as well. However, with the help of the best assignment writing provider, the students can easily make sure that they have all the help that they need with the assignment. That way, they can also concentrate on all the other aspects of education as well.

Choosing The Best Provider Of Assignment Services

However, finding the best assignment writing service provider is not that easy of a task. The students need to take care of some important factors. We all know that there are some fraud assignment services providing companies. These companies would take all the money and then not provide the important results that the students expect. Hence, it is important to choose the services in a careful manner. Here are some of the tips to help the students.

  • Do Your Research Well

Research is one of the most important things that you need to take care of when you are searching for the service provider. As we said, there are many different service providers that are providing services of assignment help. However, not all of them are genuine and authentic. So, you need to research and find a reliable service provider.

  • Reputation

When you are looking out for the service provider for the best assignment writing service provider, one needs to see if the service provider has got the reputation to handle the task or not. This is something that you will be able to see on their websites. So, keep that in mind always.

  • Academic Authenticity

When it comes to hiring the writers, you need to make sure that they are authentic as well. Some of the writers might claim to be authentic but will not be able to provide you with the services. So, choose the ones that suit the needs and requirements that you have and you will be fine.

  • Technicalities

The writer needs to make sure that they are able to properly implement all the different technicalities that are required for preparing the assignments. This is in relation to the essays, thesis, and other case studies as well. So, the writing service that you hire should be able to have all the knowledge of the technicalities.

Conclusion

When it comes to hiring the best assignment writing help providing services, you need to make sure that you always consider these important factors. Another one of the important things to consider would have to be the price of the service provider. There are many companies that provide services which are higher. So, most students might not be able to afford the services. Hence, having a reasonably priced service provider will definitely be a great start for the students.

The Roles of the Child Study Team and the IEP Process

Many teachers and administrators are unclear as to the roles of the Child Study Team and the IEP process. As the state and the country move more and more forward with inclusion, student growth objectives and other data driven initiatives for all students, it is critical that all pertinent personnel understand the special education process.

In order to understand the special education process one first must gain clarity with regard to the roles and responsibilities of the Child Study Team itself. According to N.J. Administrative Code Title 6A Chapter 14 (12/2010) the Child Study Team consists of 3 primary members. The primary members include the social worker, school psychologist and the learning disabilities teacher consultant. (p. 43) Secondary members may include the related service providers, the speech-language therapist, occupational therapist and the physical therapist. Each member has its own role and responsibility. In addition, the social worker, school psychologist and learning disability teacher consultant may also be case managers.

The function of the school social worker is to complete the social history and possibly adaptive functioning assessment, during an evaluation or re-evaluation. This includes a review of student records, parent interview and developmental history. In some districts, the social worker may also counsel students. The social worker on the child study team is usually a case manager and will coordinate services, create and manage the IEP. One important note is that it is not required for the social worker to have any classroom experience. Most often social workers have no classroom or educational experience.

The role of the school psychologist includes case management, cognitive assessment or intellectual functioning, administration of data collection for executive functioning and attention and adaptive functioning assessments. These measures commonly include the Wechsler Intelligence test(WISC), The Woodcock Johnson cognitive assessment, The Behavior Assessment System for Children(adaptive skills), and the Conner’s Scale (attention). The school psychologist is also not required to have any classroom experience and most frequently does not.

The learning disabilities teacher consultant functions as a case manager and conducts the academic achievement testing. This testing identifies strengths, needs, learning styles and where the student academically performs compared to same age or same grade students. Some of these assessments include the Woodcock – Johnson academic battery, The Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Gray oral reading, Key Math and the Brigance amongst many others. The Learning Disabilities Teacher Consultant also develops instructional strategies, goals and objectives. The important distinction with the role and responsibility of the LDT-C is that they must have at least 5 years of classroom experience. The LDT-C is the only member of the Child Study Team who must have classroom experience -usually the only who does have classroom/academic experience.

The three primary child study team members are also case managers. Each student who is classified for special education and related services has a case manager. According to N.J. Administrative Code Title 6A Chapter 14 (12/2010) the case manager must:

1. Be knowledgeable about the student’s educational needs and their educational program;

2. Be knowledgeable about special education procedures and procedural safeguards;

3. Have an apportioned amount of time for case management responsibilities; and

4. Be responsible for transition planning. (p.44)

Additionally, they coordinate the development of the IEP, monitor and evaluate its effectiveness, facilitate communication between school and home and coordinate the annual review and re-evaluation.

The special education process begins with a referral to the Child Study Team. A referral may come directly from the parents or other personnel. In order for a parent to refer a child for evaluation a letter must be written to the administration with the request. A teacher, administrator of state agency may also refer a student to the child study team. Most often the teacher first brings the student to the Intervention & Referral Services team so strategies may be devised and implemented within the general education setting. According to The Special Education Process Companion, “The staff of the general education program shall maintain written documentation, including data setting forth the type of interventions utilized, the frequency and duration of each intervention, and the effectiveness of each intervention.” (p. 2) Once the Intervention & Referral Services team determines that an evaluation may be needed, a referral would be made. It must be noted that many parents confuse the Intervention & Referral Services meeting with a Child Study Team meeting. It is important to clearly define these meetings to the parents.

Once the referral is received, regardless of who makes the referral, a meeting must be held to determine whether an evaluation is needed. This meeting must be held within 20 calendar days of receipt of the referral (excluding holidays but not summer vacation). The participants of this meeting include the child study team, the speech and language therapist if indicated, the general education teacher and the parents. During this meeting the student’s progress, interventions and needs are discussed. The team then determines whether an evaluation is needed and the scope of the evaluation. Should an evaluation not be warranted the code states that:

Within 15 calendar days of the meeting, the parent is provided with:

Written notice of the determination that the evaluation is not warranted and:

A copy of the short procedural safeguards statement; and

Copies of the special education rules (N.J.A.C. 6A:14)

and the due process hearing rules (N.J.A.C. 1:6A)

In addition, should the parent disagree with the determination not to evaluate they have the right to a due process hearing to dispute the determination. However, common practice is such that it is not prudent to spend the time and money to go to due process, and the student would tend to be evaluated as requested by the parent. If it has been determined that an evaluation is warranted the procedure continues.

One element which it is critical to follow is obtaining signed consent by the parent when needed. Once it has been determined that an evaluation is needed and the elements of the evaluation delineated, signed parental consent must be obtained. This is the first of many times throughout the special education process that consent must be obtained. According to the administrative code 6A:14 -2.3, “Consent shall be obtained prior to implementation of the initial IEP, prior to conducting a reevaluation, prior to the release of student records, each time a board of education seeks to access private insurance, whenever a child study team member is excused from a meeting, whenever an IEP is amended and whenever a waiver for reevaluation is obtained.” (p.13)

The next step in the process is the evaluation. According to the Administrative Code, “students must be administered a multidisciplinary evaluation consisting of at least 2 evaluations from child study team members and be evaluated in any area of suspected disability.” (p.50) In addition it must be, “sufficiently comprehensive to identify all of the child’s special education and related service needs, whether or not commonly linked to the suspected eligibility category.” (p.24)

At this point the Child Study Team has 90 days to evaluate, determine eligibility and create the program if needed. However, should a parent fail to produce a child numerous times this timeline does not need to be followed. During the evaluation period it is customary that the student is given some type of cognitive evaluation which determines cognitive strengths, weaknesses and overall potential. Usually a full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) is determined. An academic achievement evaluation is conducted as well. This determines the level of learning achieved by the student based on comparison to same age or grade peers and achievement strengths and weaknesses. Most districts also conduct a social history, which is conducted by parent questionnaire or interview. The social history gives valuable information regarding prenatal and birth history, milestones and emotional/social issues or concerns. Once the evaluations are completed they are sent to the parents at least 10 days in advance of the eligibility meeting.

According to the N.J. Administrative Code, “Any eligibility meeting for students classified shall include the following participants:

1. The parent;

2. A teacher who is knowledgeable about the student’s educational performance:

3. The student, where appropriate:

4. At least one child study team member who participated in the evaluation:

5. The case manager:

6. Other appropriate individuals at the discretion of the parent or school district:

7. For an initial eligibility meeting, certified school personnel referring the student for services or the principal.”(p. 17)

This team is known as the IEP team. It is called upon to convene many times throughout the special education process.

In New Jersey a student may be found eligible for special education and related services in different ways depending upon the disability category. The most common category is specific learning disability, “which is comprised of;

1. Oral expression;

2. Listening comprehension;

3. Written expression;

4. Basic reading skills;

5. Reading fluency;

6. Reading comprehension;

7. Mathematics calculation;

8. Mathematics problem solving.” (p.53)

The two methods used to determine eligibility for this category include the discrepancy method and response to intervention. When using the discrepancy method, “a severe discrepancy between ability and achievement that is not correctable without special education and related services” is needed. (p.52) Common practice dictates that a “severe discrepancy” is present if there is a 1.5 or 1 standard deviation between the two areas. This translates to a 15-22 point discrepancy when using standard scores. The second method that may be used is response to intervention. According to the Administrative code 6A:14.-3.4, 6

“When a response to scientifically based intervention methodology is utilized to make the determination of whether the student has a specific learning disability, the district board of education shall:

i. Ensure that such methodology includes scientifically based instruction by highly qualified instructors, and that multiple assessments of students progress are included in the evaluation of the student;

ii. Not be required to include more than one assessment conducted pursuant to the district’s response to scientifically based intervention methodology in the evaluation of the student; and

iii. If the parent consents in writing extend as necessary, the time to complete an evaluation.” (p.53)

“Other disability categories include:

1. Auditorily impaired, which means an inability to hear within normal limits due to physical impairment or dysfunction. An audiological evaluation and a speech and language evaluation are required.

2. Autistic which means a pervasive developmental disability which significantly impacts verbal, nonverbal and social interaction that adversely affects a student’s educational performance. An assessment by a speech and language therapist and a physician trained in Neuro-develomental assessment are required.

3. Cognitively impaired which means a disability that is characterized by significantly below average general cognitive functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior. This category is broken into three areas including mild, moderate and severe.

4. Communication impaired which means a language disorder in the areas of morphology, syntax, semantics, and/or pragmatics which adversely affects a student’s educational performance. The problem shall be demonstrated through functional assessment of language in other than a testing situation and performance below 1.5 standards deviations, or the 10th percentile on at least two standardized language tests, where such tests are appropriate one of which shall be a comprehensive test of both receptive and expressive language.

5. Emotionally disturbed which means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects and student’s educational performance due to:

i. An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory or health factors;

ii. An inability to maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers;

iii. In appropriate types of behaviors or feelings under normal circumstances;

iv. A general pervasive mood or unhappiness or depression; or

v. A tendency to develop physical symptoms of fears associated with personal or school problems.

6. Multiply disabled which means the presence of two or more disabling

conditions, the combination of which causes severe educational needs.

7.Deaf/Blindness which means concomitant hearing and visual impairments.

8 Orthopedically impaired which means a disability characterized by a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a student’s educational performance. A medical assessment documenting the orthopedic condition is required.

9 Other Health Impaired which means a disability characterized by having limited strength, vitality or alertness, included heightened alertness with respect to the educational environment, due to chronic or acute health problems, such as attention deficit disorder, heart condition or tuberculosis. A medical assessment documenting the health problem is required.

10 Preschool child with a disability means a child between the ages of 3 and 5 experiencing developmental delay as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments and procedures, in one or more areas and requires special education and related services.

11 Social maladjustment means a consistent inability to conform to the standards of behavior established by the school.

12 Specific learning disabled as described above.

13 Traumatic brain injury which means an acquired injury to the brain caused by external force or insult to the brain resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment.

14 Visual impairment means impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects the student’s educational performance. An assessment by a specialist qualified to determine visual disability is required. Students with visual impairments shall be reported to the Commission for the Blind and Visually impaired. (p. 54-60)

Once eligibility has been determined and the parent has signed consent an Individualized Education Program may be written. The case manager comes to the meeting with a draft document and the specifics are discussed and created with the IEP team. The parent may sign consent at this point or wait up to 15 days to sign consent or disagree with the IEP. Signed consent is needed to implement the first IEP after eligibility is determined.

Once the IEP is created and consent is obtained the program may begin. The modifications, accommodations, program, goals and objectives must be adhered to by all personnel who interact with the student. The IEP is a legal binding document. However, it may be amended as needed.

Other points within the special education process include the annual review and triennial reevaluation. It is mandated that each IEP is reviewed annual. Progress is determined and changes are made as needed. Additionally, every three years a student is reevaluated to determine continued elgibility. If eligibility is clear or no further information is needed then the reevaluation may be waived.

In summary, the special education process in New Jersey is a very specific process as mandated by legal code. The entire process is spelled out in the New Jersey Administrative Code Title 6A, Chapter 14. All districts must be in compliance with this code. Non-public schools have specific requirements to follow as well. Timelines, signed consent, the specific elements found within the IEP and program adherence are critical features of the special education process. Failure to follow these provisions will render a district, “out of compliance,” which comes with sanctions by the department of education.

Works Cited

New Jersey Department of Education. New Jersey Administrative Code Title 6A Chapter

14. N.P.: New Jersey Department of Education, 2010. Print.

New Jersey Office of Special Education. Special Education Process: From Child-Find, Referral, Evaluation, and Eligibility to IEP Development, Annual Review and Reevaluation. N.P.: New Jersey Office of Special Education, 2007. Print.